Django 之restfromwork 源码分析之--视图组件

时间:2019-07-04
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restframework 源码分析以及使用

mixins 中的五种类方法

from rest_framework import mixins 
# mixins 中一种有五种类
# 第一种:用户保存数据
class CreateModelMixin(object):
    """
    Create a model instance.
    """
    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 序列化的类的对象
        serializer = self.get_serializer(data=request.data)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)  # 校验
        self.perform_create(serializer)  # 保存
        headers = self.get_success_headers(serializer.data)
        return Response(serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED, headers=headers)

    def perform_create(self, serializer):
        serializer.save()  # 保存

    def get_success_headers(self, data):
        try:
            return {'Location': str(data[api_settings.URL_FIELD_NAME])}
        except (TypeError, KeyError):
            return {}
">>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>"
# 第二种:用户取出多条数据
class ListModelMixin(object):
    """
    List a queryset.
    """
    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 过滤相关
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())
        # 分页相关
        page = self.paginate_queryset(queryset)
        if page is not None:
            # 序列化多条数据
            serializer = self.get_serializer(page, many=True)
            # 返回分页相关序列化对象的data
            return self.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)
        # 正常序列化
        serializer = self.get_serializer(queryset, many=True)
        # 正常返回
        return Response(serializer.data)
'>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>'
# 第三种:用于取出单个数据
class RetrieveModelMixin(object):
    """
    Retrieve a model instance.
    """
    def retrieve(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance)
        return Response(serializer.data)
">>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>"
# 第四种:用户修改更新数据
class UpdateModelMixin(object):
    """
    Update a model instance.
    """
    def update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        partial = kwargs.pop('partial', False)
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance, data=request.data, partial=partial)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_update(serializer)

        if getattr(instance, '_prefetched_objects_cache', None):
            # If 'prefetch_related' has been applied to a queryset, we need to
            # forcibly invalidate the prefetch cache on the instance.
            instance._prefetched_objects_cache = {}

        return Response(serializer.data)

    def perform_update(self, serializer):
        serializer.save()

    def partial_update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        kwargs['partial'] = True
        return self.update(request, *args, **kwargs)
">>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>"
# 第五种: 用于删除数据
class DestroyModelMixin(object):
    """
    Destroy a model instance.
    """
    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        self.perform_destroy(instance)
        return Response(status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)

    def perform_destroy(self, instance):
        instance.delete()

GenericAPIView类源码

from rest_framework.generics import GenericAPIView
class GenericAPIView(views.APIView):
    """
    Base class for all other generic views.
    """
    # You'll need to either set these attributes,
    # or override `get_queryset()`/`get_serializer_class()`.
    # If you are overriding a view method, it is important that you call
    # `get_queryset()` instead of accessing the `queryset` property directly,
    # as `queryset` will get evaluated only once, and those results are cached
    # for all subsequent requests.
    queryset = None
    serializer_class = None

    # If you want to use object lookups other than pk, set 'lookup_field'.
    # For more complex lookup requirements override `get_object()`.
    lookup_field = 'pk'
    lookup_url_kwarg = None

    # The filter backend classes to use for queryset filtering
    filter_backends = api_settings.DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS

    # The style to use for queryset pagination.
    pagination_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_PAGINATION_CLASS

    def get_queryset(self):
        """
        Get the list of items for this view.
        This must be an iterable, and may be a queryset.
        Defaults to using `self.queryset`.

        This method should always be used rather than accessing `self.queryset`
        directly, as `self.queryset` gets evaluated only once, and those results
        are cached for all subsequent requests.

        You may want to override this if you need to provide different
        querysets depending on the incoming request.

        (Eg. return a list of items that is specific to the user)
        """
        assert self.queryset is not None, (
            "'%s' should either include a `queryset` attribute, "
            "or override the `get_queryset()` method."
            % self.__class__.__name__
        )
        # 这里的 self.queryset 根据 调用的时候 传值的querset来的
        queryset = self.queryset
        if isinstance(queryset, QuerySet):
            # Ensure queryset is re-evaluated on each request.
            queryset = queryset.all()
        return queryset  # 返回的 Querset对象

    def get_object(self):
        """
        Returns the object the view is displaying.

        You may want to override this if you need to provide non-standard
        queryset lookups.  Eg if objects are referenced using multiple
        keyword arguments in the url conf.
        """
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())

        # Perform the lookup filtering.
        lookup_url_kwarg = self.lookup_url_kwarg or self.lookup_field

        assert lookup_url_kwarg in self.kwargs, (
            'Expected view %s to be called with a URL keyword argument '
            'named "%s". Fix your URL conf, or set the `.lookup_field` '
            'attribute on the view correctly.' %
            (self.__class__.__name__, lookup_url_kwarg)
        )

        filter_kwargs = {self.lookup_field: self.kwargs[lookup_url_kwarg]}
        obj = get_object_or_404(queryset, **filter_kwargs)

        # May raise a permission denied
        self.check_object_permissions(self.request, obj)

        return obj

    def get_serializer(self, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Return the serializer instance that should be used for validating and
        deserializing input, and for serializing output.
        """
        # 通过调用 get_serializer_class() 获取 序列化类
        serializer_class = self.get_serializer_class()
        kwargs['context'] = self.get_serializer_context()
        # 返回序列化类的实例对象
        return serializer_class(*args, **kwargs)

    def get_serializer_class(self):
        """
        Return the class to use for the serializer.
        Defaults to using `self.serializer_class`.

        You may want to override this if you need to provide different
        serializations depending on the incoming request.

        (Eg. admins get full serialization, others get basic serialization)
        """
        assert self.serializer_class is not None, (
            "'%s' should either include a `serializer_class` attribute, "
            "or override the `get_serializer_class()` method."
            % self.__class__.__name__
        )
        # 返回的是序列化的类
        return self.serializer_class

    def get_serializer_context(self):
        """
        Extra context provided to the serializer class.
        """
        return {
            'request': self.request,
            'format': self.format_kwarg,
            'view': self
        }

    def filter_queryset(self, queryset):
        """
        Given a queryset, filter it with whichever filter backend is in use.

        You are unlikely to want to override this method, although you may need
        to call it either from a list view, or from a custom `get_object`
        method if you want to apply the configured filtering backend to the
        default queryset.
        """
        for backend in list(self.filter_backends):
            queryset = backend().filter_queryset(self.request, queryset, self)
        return queryset

    @property
    def paginator(self):
        """
        The paginator instance associated with the view, or `None`.
        """
        if not hasattr(self, '_paginator'):
            if self.pagination_class is None:
                self._paginator = None
            else:
                self._paginator = self.pagination_class()
        return self._paginator

    def paginate_queryset(self, queryset):
        """
        Return a single page of results, or `None` if pagination is disabled.
        """
        if self.paginator is None:
            return None
        return self.paginator.paginate_queryset(queryset, self.request, view=self)

    def get_paginated_response(self, data):
        """
        Return a paginated style `Response` object for the given output data.
        """
        assert self.paginator is not None
        return self.paginator.get_paginated_response(data)

视图类的四种方法

路由(前三种写法)

    url(r'^books/$',views.BooksView.as_view()),
    url(r'^books/(?P<pk>\d+)$',views.BookDetailView.as_view())
  • 基本写法(略)

  • 第二种写法

    from rest_framework.mixins import CreateModelMixin, UpdateModelMixin, DestroyModelMixin, \ ListModelMixin, RetrieveModelMixin
    
    from rest_framework.generics import GenericAPIView
    from app01 import myser
    from app01 import models
    
    
    class BooksView(CreateModelMixin, ListModelMixin, GenericAPIView):
        queryset = models.Book.objects.all()
        serializer_class = myser.BookSerializer
    
        def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            print(request.data)
            return self.create(request, *args, **kwargs)
    
        # 返回多条数据
        def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            return self.list(request, *args, **kwargs)
    
    
    class BookDetailView(RetrieveModelMixin, UpdateModelMixin, DestroyModelMixin, GenericAPIView):
        queryset = models.Book.objects.all()
        serializer_class = myser.BookSerializer
    
        # 返回单条数据
        def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            return self.retrieve(request, *args, **kwargs)
    
        # 修改数据
        def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            return self.update(request, *args, **kwargs)
    
        # 删除数据
        def delete(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
            return self.destroy(request, *args, **kwargs)
  • 第三种写法

    class BooksView(ListCreateAPIView):
      queryset = models.Publish.objects.all()
      serializer_class = PublishSerializers
    
    class BookDetailView(RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView):
      queryset = models.Publish.objects.all()
      serializer_class = PublishSerializers
  • 第四种写法(两个视图类合成一个)

    路由

     url(r'^publish/$', views.PublishView.as_view({'get':'list','post':'create'})),
     url(r'^publish/(P<pk>\d+)/$',views.PublishView.as_view({'get':'retrieve','put':'update','delete':'destroy'})),
    from rest_framework.viewsets import ModelViewSet
    class PublishView(ModelViewSet):
      queryset=models.Publish.objects.all()
      serializer_class=PublishSerializers
    #  ViewSetMixin重写了as_view方法,路由配置就改了,可以写成映射的形式{get:get_one}
    #  as_view方法内部执行效果
    #   通过反射的取值跟赋值,完成映射,根据请求方式执行对应的方法(比如:get请求执行get_one方法,在路由中配置{get:getone})

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