Mysql之配置双主热备+keeepalived.md

时间:2019-11-28
本文章向大家介绍 Mysql之配置双主热备+keeepalived.md,主要包括 Mysql之配置双主热备+keeepalived.md使用实例、应用技巧、基本知识点总结和需要注意事项,具有一定的参考价值,需要的朋友可以参考一下。

准备


1 1. 双主 master1 192.168.199.49 2 master2 192.168.199.50 3 VIP 192.168.199.52 //虚拟IP 4 2.环境 master:nginx + php + mysql + keepalived 5 VIP:只要和master在一个局域网内即可。 6 3. 服务器之间网络通畅,可以互相ping通。 7 4. 2个服务器的mysql版本要一致。数据库密码一致 8 5. 防火墙增加允许组播和允许VRRP(虚拟路由器冗余协)通信,这样主服务器在故障恢复后才能抢回资源 9 -A INPUT -s 182.148.15.0/24 -d 224.0.0.18 -j ACCEPT 10 -A INPUT -s 182.148.15.0/24 -p vrrp -j ACCEPT 11 重启生效:service iptables reload

配置服务器

 1 服务器1:
 2 
 3 在my.cnf文件的[mysqld]配置区域添加下面内容:
 4 log-bin=mysql-bin   #记录二进制文件
 5 binlog_format=mixed #mysql默认采用的二进制格式
 6 server-id    = 2 #服务号,必须是唯一的,一般取IP的后8位
 7 expire_logs_days = 10   #binlog过期清理时间
 8 
 9 binlog-do-db = db1  #需要服务的数据库。
10 #replicate-ignore-db = db3,mysql,test,information_schema,performance_schema,transfer_new #不需要复制的数据库
11 #replicate-wild-ignore-table=garbage.% #有问题可以尝试使用此项配置
12 sync_binlog = 1 #表示binlog日志在每1次写入后与硬盘同步,设置1最安全也最慢
13 auto-increment-increment = 2 #服务器个数
14 auto-increment-offset = 2 #自增偏移量,如果有2台,则一台设置1,另一台设置2
15 slave-skip-errors = all #从库复制时跳过所有的错误
16 服务器2:
17 
18 log-bin=mysql-bin
19 binlog_format=mixed
20 server-id = 1
21 expire_logs_days = 10
22 binlog-do-db = db1
23 #replicate-ignore-db = db3,mysql,test,information_schema,performance_schema,transfer_new
24 #replicate-wild-ignore-table=garbage.% #有问题可以尝试使用此项配置
25 sync_binlog = 1
26 auto-increment-increment = 2     
27 auto-increment-offset = 1    
28 slave-skip-errors = all

2台服务器都重启mysql服务:

1 service mysql restart

 

同步配置(2台服务器分别执行)

1 给对方授权复制权限
2 
3 //对方服务器60.205.182.26允许复制本服务器数据库,用户名repl 密码ocnt-123
4 mysql> grant replication slave,replication client on *.* to repl@'60.205.182.26' identified by "ocnt-123";
5 //生效 
6 mysql> flush privileges;     
7 //锁定表
8 mysql> flush tables with read lock;

同步数据

1 1.锁定表
2 mysql> flush tables with read lock;
3 2.同步数据,可使用navicat

 

同步操作(2台服务器分别执行)

 1 //查看各自服务器当前二进制日志文件名称和记录位置
 2 mysql> show master status;
 3 
 4 <!-----------------------服务器1同步------------------------------------>
 5 //解锁表
 6 mysql> unlock tables;
 7 //停止slave
 8 mysql> slave stop;
 9 //开始同步: IP、用户名和密码为服务器2刚才grant授权配置的,日志文件和pos值得位置通过服务器2 show master status查看得来
10 mysql> change  master to  master_host='101.200.63.35',master_user='repl',master_password='123456',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000016',master_log_pos=363;
11 //开启slave
12 mysql> start slave;
13 
14 <!-----------------------服务器2同步------------------------------------>
15 //解锁表
16 mysql> unlock tables;
17 //停止slave
18 mysql> slave stop;
19 <!--开始同步-->
20 change  master to master_host='60.205.182.26',master_user='repl',master_password='123456',master_log_file='mysql-bin.000028',master_log_pos=107;
21 <!--开启slave-->
22 mysql> start slave;

 

查看同步状态,如下出现两个“Yes”,表明同步成功!(Slave_IO_Running和Slave_SQL_Running)

1 mysql> show slave status \G;

 

配置到此处就完成了双主热备。

keepalived故障自动切换配置

 1 master1:192.168.199.49  主机1
 2 master2:192.168.199.50  主机2 备份
 3 VIP:192.168.199.52   虚拟IP
 4 ### 2台服务器安装keepalived
 5 
 6 [root@localhost ]#yum install -y openssl-devel
 7 [root@localhost src]#cd /usr/local/src/
 8 [root@localhost src]# wget http://www.keepalived.org/software/keepalived-1.3.5.tar.gz
 9 [root@localhost src]# tar -zvxf keepalived-1.3.5.tar.gz
10 [root@localhost src]# cd keepalived-1.3.5
11 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/keepalived
12 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# make && make install
13      
14 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# cp /usr/local/src/keepalived-1.3.5/keepalived/etc/init.d/keepalived /etc/rc.d/init.d/
15 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# cp /usr/local/keepalived/etc/sysconfig/keepalived /etc/sysconfig/
16 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# mkdir /etc/keepalived/
17 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# cp /usr/local/keepalived/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/
18 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# cp /usr/local/keepalived/sbin/keepalived /usr/sbin/
19 [root@localhost keepalived-1.3.5]# echo "/etc/init.d/keepalived start" >> /etc/rc.local

 

master1服务器配置

 1 [root@master1 ~]# cp /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf.bak
 2 [root@master1 ~]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf       #删除所有内容,重新配置如下
 3 
 4 ! Configuration File for keepalived
 5 global_defs {
 6     notification_email {
 7         412140451@qq.com
 8     }
 9            
10     notification_email_from 412140451@qq.com
11     smtp_server 127.0.0.1 
12     smtp_connect_timeout 30
13     router_id MASTER-HA
14 }
15        
16 vrrp_script chk_mysql_port {     #检测mysql服务是否在运行
17     script "/opt/chk_mysql.sh"   #这里通过脚本监测
18     interval 3                   #脚本执行间隔,每3s检测一次
19     weight -5                    #脚本结果导致的优先级变更,检测失败(脚本返回非0)则优先级 -5
20     fall 2                    #检测连续2次失败才算确定是真失败。会用weight减少优先级(1-255之间)
21     rise 1                    #检测1次成功就算成功。但不修改优先级
22 }
23        
24 vrrp_instance VI_1 {
25     state MASTER    
26     interface eth0      #指定虚拟ip的网卡接口
27     mcast_src_ip 192.168.199.49 #本机master的 IP地址
28     virtual_router_id 100    #路由器标识,MASTER和BACKUP必须是一致的
29     priority 100 #定义优先级,数字越大,优先级越高,在同一个vrrp_instance下,MASTER的优先级必须大于BACKUP的优先级。这样MASTER故障恢复后,就可以将VIP资源再次抢回来
30     advert_int 1         
31     authentication {   #加密协议
32         auth_type PASS 
33         auth_pass 1111     
34     }
35     virtual_ipaddress {    
36         192.168.199.52      #虚拟IP地址 VIP
37     }
38       
39     track_script {               
40        chk_mysql_port             
41     }
42 }

 

master2服务器配置 修改 mcast_src_ip priority

 1 global_defs {
 2     notification_email {
 3         412140451@qq.com
 4     }
 5            
 6     notification_email_from 412140451@qq.com
 7     smtp_server 127.0.0.1 
 8     smtp_connect_timeout 30
 9     router_id MASTER-HA
10 }
11            
12 vrrp_script chk_mysql_port {
13     script "/opt/chk_mysql.sh"
14     interval 3            
15     weight -5                 
16     fall 2                 
17     rise 1               
18 }
19        
20 vrrp_instance VI_1 {
21     state BACKUP
22     interface eth0    
23     mcast_src_ip 192.168.199.50
24     virtual_router_id 100    
25     priority 90         
26     advert_int 1         
27     authentication {   
28         auth_type PASS 
29         auth_pass 1111     
30     }
31     virtual_ipaddress {    
32         192.168.199.52
33     }
34     
35     track_script {               
36        chk_mysql_port             
37     }
38 }

 

2个服务器都编写检测切换mysql脚本

 1 KeepAlived做心跳检测,如果Master的MySQL服务挂了(3306端口挂了),那么它就会选择自杀。Slave的KeepAlived通过心跳检测发现这个情况,就会将VIP的请求接管
 2 vim /opt/chk_mysql.sh
 3 
 4 #!/bin/bash
 5 CHECK_TIME=3
 6 
 7 #Mysql
 8 host='localhost'
 9 port='3306'
10 user='root'
11 password='ocnt-123'
12 mysqlclient="mysql"
13 
14 #mysql  is working MYSQL_OK is 1 , mysql down MYSQL_OK is 0
15 function check_mysql_helth (){
16     #NEW=$MYSQL -h $MYSQL_HOST -u $MYSQL_USER -p${MYSQL_PASSWORD} -e "show status;" >/dev/null 2>&1
17     $mysqlclient --host=$host --port=$port --user=$user --password=$password  -e "show databases;" > /dev/null 2>&1
18 
19     if [ $? == 0 ]
20         then
21               MYSQL_OK=1
22     else
23               MYSQL_OK=0
24     fi
25 #    echo $MYSQL_OK
26     return $MYSQL_OK
27 }
28 
29 while [ $CHECK_TIME -ne 0 ]
30 do
31     let "CHECK_TIME -= 1"
32     check_mysql_helth
33 if [ $MYSQL_OK == 1 ] ; then
34     CHECK_TIME=0
35     exit 0
36 fi
37 if [ $MYSQL_OK -eq 0 ] &&  [ $CHECK_TIME -eq 0 ]
38 then
39     pkill keepalived
40     exit 1
41 fi
42 sleep 1
43 done

 

赋权限

1 chmod 755 /opt/chk_mysql.sh

启动服务

1 关闭防火墙 
2 service iptables stop
3 启动服务
4  /etc/init.d/keepalived start

 

数据库测试

1 使用局域网内的客户端连接VIP
2 mysql -h192.168.199.52 -uroot -pocnt-123
3 测试是否可用

 

故障切换检测

 1 默认情况下,vip是在master1上的。使用"ip addr"命令查看vip切换情况 
 2 ip addr
 3 查找
 4 inet 192.168.199.49/32 scope global eth0                              //这个32位子网掩码的vip地址表示该资源目前还在master1机器上,而master2机器上没有
 5 同时查看 tail -f /var/log/message 会发现
 6 Dec 13 17:52:38 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[65545]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering MASTER STATE
 7 Dec 13 17:52:38 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[65545]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) setting protocol VIPs.
 8 Dec 13 17:52:38 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[65545]: Sending gratuitous ARP on eth0 for 192.168.199.51
 9 
10 关掉master1的mysql服务
11 service mysql stop
12 查看 master1的日志 tail -f /var/log/message 会发现
13 Dec 13 18:52:44 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[65545]: Stopped
14 Dec 13 18:52:44 localhost Keepalived[65542]: Stopped Keepalived v1.3.5 (03/19,2017), git commit v1.3.5-6-g6fa32f2
15 
16 查看master2的日志
17 Dec 13 18:52:45 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Transition to MASTER STATE
18 Dec 13 18:52:46 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering MASTER STATE
19 Dec 13 18:52:46 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) setting protocol VIPs.
20 Dec 13 18:52:46 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: Sending gratuitous ARP on eth0 for 192.168.199.51
21 
22 此时就已经转移到master2上,
23 恢复master1 的mysql服务
24 service mysql start
25 恢复master1 的keepalive
26 /etc/init.d/keepalived start
27 
28 查看master1的日志
29 Dec 13 18:54:41 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[71002]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Transition to MASTER STATE
30 Dec 13 18:54:42 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[71002]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering MASTER STATE
31 Dec 13 18:54:42 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[71002]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) setting protocol VIPs.
32 Dec 13 18:54:42 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[71002]: Sending gratuitous ARP on eth0 for 192.168.199.51
33 
34 查看master2的日志
35 Dec 13 18:54:41 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Received advert with higher priority 100, ours 90
36 Dec 13 18:54:41 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering BACKUP STATE
37 Dec 13 18:54:41 localhost Keepalived_vrrp[28451]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) removing protocol VIPs.
38 
39 说明服务已经转移到master2上了。
40 至此完成

 

完成

其它:删除主从复制

1 mysql> stop slave;
2 mysql> slave reset; 
3 mysql> reset master;

keepalived

1 启动
2 /etc/init.d/keepalived start

异常解决办法

1 如果不能正常复制,查看状态
2 sql> show slave status \G;
3 然后可以看到错误信息,一般情况下,重启一下slave就好了
4 sql> stop slave;

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